Pregnancy, reproductive hormones, migraine, irregular heartbeat and smoking increase stroke risk for women
Many people may not know that women are at higher risk of ischemic stroke than men are. According to the American Stroke Association, about 55,000 more women than men have a stroke every year. Further, 1 in 5 women will have a stroke, and this “brain attack” is the third leading cause of death among women.
Ischemic stroke occurs when a clot in a blood vessel stops blood flow to the brain and deprives it of oxygen and nutrients. Women have unique risk factors for this type of stroke related to their reproductive health. Women with migraines, atrial fibrillation or who smoke are also at higher risk for stroke.
Here is what you need to know about stroke risk in women and how to lower your risk.
How does pregnancy increase stroke risk for women?
Most women will have healthy pregnancies and birthing experiences. However, if you are pregnant or planning to be, it is important to know about stroke risk so you can manage it. Pregnancy can put stress on the body and cause conditions such as poor blood circulation, high blood pressure and preeclampsia that increase stroke risk.
“Pregnancy can cause swelling and reduce blood flow to parts of the body, especially the lower legs. In turn, poor circulation can cause the blood to clot,” explains Dr. Elizabeth Lucal, system vice chair of Women’s Health Services at Nuvance Health. “Also, towards the end of pregnancy, the body makes more of a substance that helps the blood to clot to prevent a woman from bleeding too much when she gives birth.”
Some women can develop high blood pressure when they are pregnant or might have had it before they were pregnant. Preeclampsia is a type of high blood pressure that only occurs during pregnancy. High blood pressure or hypertension increases stroke risk because the heart has to work harder to pump blood, which can weaken arteries.
“If you are pregnant or planning to be, your gynecologist will monitor your blood pressure and help you manage it. Eating a healthy, low-sodium diet and getting regular aerobic exercise such as walking can help keep your blood pressure in check when you are pregnant,” says Dr. Lucal, an obstetrician gynecologist (OB/GYN).
How do birth control pills increase stroke risk for women?
Women who take birth control pills may be at increased risk of stroke.
“Some birth control pills contain hormones that can increase the risk of blood clots,” says Dr. Lucal. “Speak with your gynecologist before starting birth control. If you are at increased risk for stroke because of your personal or family health history, diet, weight or because you smoke, your doctor may recommend other birth control options that might be safer for you.”
How does hormone replacement therapy increase stroke risk for women?
Similarly, women who take hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to treat menopause symptoms may be at increased risk of stroke. HRT contains hormones that can increase the risk of blood clots.
“Talk with your doctor about your stroke risk and if hormone replacement therapy is safe for you. Your doctor can also discuss other possible ways to manage menopause symptoms,” says Dr. Lucal.
Why does migraine with aura increase stroke risk for women?
Migraines affect women more than men and can occur more frequently during menstrual cycles due to changes in estrogen levels. In particular, migraines with aura have been linked to an increased risk of stroke given propensity for clots to form in narrowed arteries. Aura can cause visual disturbances, as well as stroke-like symptoms including problems with speech and numbness or tingling in the body.
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“Migraines alter the blood vessels in the brain, which may be why they can increase stroke risk. But it’s a relative risk and healthy lifestyle such as stopping smoking decreases stroke risk,” explains Dr. Hida Nierenburg, director of headache medicine at Nuvance Health.
“A headache specialist can help you manage migraine triggers and develop a treatment plan to reduce your migraine days,” says Dr. Nierenburg. “As a neurologist, a headache specialist can also help you determine your overall stroke risk and help you lower it.”
Why does atrial fibrillation increase stroke risk for women?
Women with atrial fibrillation (AFib) are at increased risk of stroke. AFib causes about 1 in 7 strokes, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
“AFib is a type of irregular heartbeat that can cause blood clots to form in the heart. If a blood clot travels to the brain, it can cause a stroke,” explains Dr. Latha Subramaniam, a cardiologist at Nuvance Health.
“Common risk factors for AFib include high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, excessive alcohol use and smoking. Medications and healthy lifestyle choices can help you manage AFib,” says Dr. Subramaniam.
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How does smoking increase stroke risk for women?
Smoking is a major risk factor for stroke in women. Smoking can damage blood vessels and increase the risk of blood clots.
“If you currently smoke, please quit now. If you need help quitting, talk with your primary care doctor who can connect you with support services,” says Dr. Paul Wright, senior vice president and system chair of the Neuroscience Institute at Nuvance Health.
“Many people may not know that about 80% of strokes can be prevented through lifestyle choices. It is never too late to lower your stroke risk by eating a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, not drinking alcohol in excess and not smoking,” says Dr. Wright, a neurologist who specializes in stroke.
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The bottom line: Women have unique risk factors for stroke. Women are at higher risk of stroke when they are pregnant; if they take birth control or hormone replacement therapy; if they have migraine with aura or an irregular heartbeat; or smoke. The first step is determining your stroke risk with your doctor and finding ways to lower it, such as by managing your blood pressure, eating healthy and exercising.